Lugo di Grezzana, Neolithic settlementÂ culture ofÂ Fiorano: the ceramic industry of the sector IX *
The area to the south of the small town of Lugo di Grezzana, called locality Campagne, used today as industrial area, is the subject since the early nineties of systematic research undertaken by the Archaeological Superintendence of Veneto, assisted at a later time (1996) by the Department of Philological and Historical Sciences of the University of Trento. These investigations have brought to light a large settlement refers to the culture of Fiorano particularly important due to the close proximity of the deposits of flint (Salzani, 1993 Moser, Pedrotti, 1996 Moser, below), and for the numerous settlement structures so far brought to light.The continuing inquiries in the field of X will be of fundamental importance for the study of housing facilities of the first Neolithic and may help to understand the structural evidence brought to light in those areas as the ninth, the subject of this note, are difficult to understand because it compromised from construction work.
The area investigated by excavation areas (I- XI) , named according to the sequence of the operations, regards the distal part of the alluvial fans , located in the vicinity of the establishment of ‘ Lessinia Granites ‘ (Fig. 1) . Until 1997, the research was limited to investigating the edges of deposit, spared from the excavation carried out by the Lessinia Granite and Marble Consortium for the construction of sheds and settling tanks . Since 1998 it has been possible to open in its own grounds Degani , north of Granite Lessinia , the X sector of approx. 800 m2 has detected a large archaeological Potentials for the study of ancient dwellings of the Neolithic in northern Italy. Of particular importance has been the discovery, made this year, a foundation trench for the installation of a fence currently under investigation for about 10 m . The pit has a portion spared corresponding probably to the point of entrance to the village , is about three feet deep and cuts a layer of gravel in which are visible the footprints of post holes . The fence has been realized with 5 large poles of head and flanked by a series of piles of smaller diameter arranged alternately in a double row . At the bottom was found a phalanx of perhaps caprovino , which could have implications for the ceremony of the foundation of the structure as has been suggested by the discovery of a dog paw placed under a glass highlighted at the bottom of the contemporary palisade of Lugo di Romagna . Also in the rites of Trustees may be related to the presence in the filling of the hole of the pole at s ‘ “input” of a fragment of a foot wide plant a clay statuette that finds comparisons Rivaltella ( The prehistoric art , 1978 Fig.16 : 3 ) , Ostiano Dugali Hohe ( Biagi et al , 1995) and Savignano sul Panaro ( Bernabo Brea et al . , 1990) .
The ceramic of Lugo di Grezzana is , in general, very corroded, to the arrangement in a highly clayey soil that has altered the surface , only in rare cases is preserved the original ingubbiatura . The shapes and decorative syntax are primarily attributable to the culture of Fiorano (Fig. 6 and Fig 8 ) . In both the structures recognize fragments of jugs with handle reels sometimes topped by tubercle (Fig. 6 : 3 ) decorated with motifs obtained grooves and impressions is placed on the upper wall (Fig. 7: 1) is on the bottom , both on ‘ loop . Amounted jars decorated with smooth weld (Fig. 8 : 1). VHO environment are attributable to the vessel wall biansati truncated cone with the bottom of the heel (Fig. 6 : 11 ), sometimes decorated with beads in notches ( Fig. 7: 6) and the vessels of corbel (Fig. 6 : 2 ) . For peninsular environment of the Adriatic impressed pottery , could be traced vessels with conical section , in the vicinity of the loop , a raised rim lobe (Fig. 7 : 7) and the claws decoration that is on a mug faired type Fiorano ( Fig.6 : 6 ) . Always in peninsular contacttraditionRipoli could bring the abundant presence of ceramic figulina documented in the structure 235 , as many as 31 fragments. The presence of fragments of ceramic mugs faired figulina (Fig. 8: 3-7) make plausible the hypothesis of a local production of these forms at least . It is more difficult to identify any area of the influence of Fr. to jar with internal loops (Fig. 8 : 2), which is a detailed comparison in a specimen intact unearthed in Lugo in the week . IV ( Moser, Pedrotti , 1996 Figure 8: 3).Particularly important for the issue concerning the relationship between the culture of Fiorano , ceramics and graffiti culture of Jars Square Mouth is the presence in the structure 235 , next to the Fiorano forms of graffiti painted ceramics (Fig. 7 : 4, 5 ; Fig.8 : 7-8-9 ) It is a high- end glossy black ceramic foot adorned in a zig -zag pattern (Fig. 8 : 9) 251-252 certificate levels (Fig. 5 ) and two fragments Embellished with a ladder (Fig. 7 : 4-5 ) in the next level ( U.S. 231 ) in combination with two fragments of VBQ (Fig. 6 : 7,8).
Currently in the Veneto region , only the Basse di Valcalaona ( Barfield et al. , 1975 Fig 4 n . 5 ) , and Fimon Pianezze ( Bianchin , Pedrotti , 1987 2: 13 ) can be counted among the settlements of Fiorano , for having returned items related to the culture of VBQ . While the settlements of the culture of VBQ which recorded attendances at Fiorano Veneta area are: Quinzano ( Biagi , 1972 Fig 17 nos. 1-6 ) and MC Fimon ( Bagolini et al . , 1973 , Fig 23 n . 6 ) . The presence of these elements ( or Fiorano VBQ ) in contexts foreign to them was justified in the case of MC Fimon as the residue of the culture of Fiorano on the emerging culture of VBQ ( Barfield et al. , 1971 , p. 37) and in the case of Quinzano , assuming a partial coincidence in time between the two cultures ( Biagi , 1972 , p. 478) , aimed in part also supported by Barfield – Broglio (1975 : 318) about the Basse di Valcalaona and Bianchin , Pedrotti (1987 : 439) for the complex Fimon Pianezze .
During the campaigns of scave 1996 , 1997 and 1998 was investigated IX where the sector have been highlighted three main structures : a fireplace in part over a pit and a great structure of which, unfortunately , the preserved part is very limited because in addition to have been affected by the work mentioned above has been further damaged by illegal excavations (Fig. 3 and Fig 4).
The cockpit (ES 234) is circular in shape fairly regular basis with a maximum diameter of 1:15 m and depth of 0.5 m . The walls are sub-vertical and slightly convex base .
The elements at our disposal for reliable interpretation of this structure are scarce. The size and morphology would seem to indicate a primary use as silos. The insulating function could in fact be carried out by the clayey soil in which they are made ( Bagolini , Ferrari, Pessina , 1993: 35). The final use as rifiutaia , common to many substructures of ancient Neolithic seems proven by the variety of exhibits and their content arrangement.
The structure E.S. 235 is 1 m deep . He subvertical walls and three sides that meet at a right angle. Only one is possible to obtain complete measurements ( 2.8 m ) while the other two are preserved for m 2.1 m 0.5. The structure had to be oriented north -east south -west . On the basis of similar evidence detected in the areas IV and V ( Fig. 2), we can assume had an elongated rectangular plan and slightly convex base . Unfortunately, even these examples , there are no joints intact. The similarities are obvious , however, in the plant and orientation , instead differ by depth and type of fill . Are in fact deep between 20 and 40 cm and the filling is represented by a level very carbonaceous with heaps of concotto . The structure 235 has a rather well-articulated sequence stratigraphy . On the roof you can see contributions colluvial clayey silt from the north- east according to the slope of the slope. These cover livelletti alternating concotto chopped and carbonaceous material (U.S. 251-254 ) . A layer of silty (U.S. 255) with pedorelitti is lying on the bottom of the structure. At the base was noted a depression of circular shape, but the sides occur too flared to be defined as the hole of the pole.
Currently it is not possible to provide an adequate interpretation of these findings . Useful guidance in this regard will be provided by the micromorphological study entrusted to Diego Angelucci . The presence on the bottom of a layer with pedorelitti suggests that the hole has been left open for a certain period of time . Probably served as the basis of a raised wooden fire destroyed a clay coating . This event is suggested by the layering of alternating layers of carbon and concotto inclined from the walls toward the center (U.S. 251-254 ) . Source Material colluvium has completed later filling (U.S. 228 , 230, 239 , 233, 231 ) .
These structures may be associated with two post holes with a conical section (ES 237 north and 242 south ) found , respectively , 0:55 am 1:25 am by ES 235 (Fig. 3) . Have a diameter of 20 cm and 40 and the are 15 cm deep and 20.
These structures are sealed by a layer affected by concentrations of flint to the roof ( it is probably waste lithic workshop ) and partly by the installation of a fireplace (ES 215 ), which testify to the presence of a more recent phase of attendance. The hearth , preserved only partially , is represented by a plane in the clay to form sub-circular having a diameter of approx. 1.40 m .
The discovery of Lugo di Grezzana would seem to attest stratigraphically Â a partial contemporaneity of the last aspects of the culture of Fiorano to the spread of the first phase VBQ evidenced by the existence of hearths and chipping areas that , by insisting on previous structures , determining in part the final filling (see U.S. 231 ) .
More difficult for the moment to comment on the discovery of the remains corbel decorated in a zig- zag in the underlying layers (Fig. 5). This fact could testify that the contact with the first aspects VBQ is started when it was still active the structure 235 . Vice versa could prove the existence of contacts with complex incised ceramic pre VBQ described, for example the Arene Candide and Pollera ( Maggi, 1977 : 49-55 ; Odetti 1977 : 56-60 ; TinĂ¨ 1999 : 142-180 ) .
The results of the analysis to C14 as well as a careful study of stratigraphic data combined with spatial analysis of lithic and ceramic types may help to clarify the dynamics of the distribution of this decorative technique .
Cavulli F.,Â Angelucci D.E., Pedrotti A., 2002, La successione stratigrafica di Lugo di Grezzana (Verona) Â»Â»
L’insediamento del Neolitico antico di Lugo di Grezzana: la palizzata lignea Â»Â»
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(*) Article writtenÂ by A. Pedrotti, F. Cavulli, A. Miorelli and pubblicated inÂ A. Pessina, G. Muscio (edited by),Â La neolitizzazione tra oriente e occidente, 2000, pp. 111-123.